Types of hospital infections
types of nosocomial infections
NI (2) is said to infection after admission to hospital (48 or 72 hours.
later) or within a specified period (10 to 30 days) after discharge (25 Up to 50% wound infections
surgery appear after discharge) occurs and there is no admission In
incubation period should also be considered. However, following surgery, the patient's body
be implanted foreign bodies (Implant), nosocomial infection up to one year after such
actions occur (3). Nosocomial infections can also patients, staff and visit
users are also affected. < / div>
each of the human body at the hospital, but the infection among types of infections.
Nosocomial urinary tract infection (42%), lower respiratory tract infection (in the other study number
11% was mentioned) or pneumonia (15% to 20%), infection surgical wounds (24%), and infections
circulatory system (5-10%), of special importance, based on the definitions of infection surveillance system < / span>
Hospital Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), are described in Table 1. The
studies, urinary tract infections, nosocomial infections are the most common and fatal pneumonia.
although some centers, hospital infections, circulatory system, is the main cause of death.
nosocomial infections, several aspects are important:
· Mortality and morbidity in patients
· Prolongation of hospitalization
· Increased costs due to prolongation of stay, diagnosis, Drmanyrah transmission of microorganisms in hospitals
in hospital microorganisms can be transmitted in many ways they are assembled (5), and sometimes a
germs can be transmitted in several ways. Transmission of microorganisms in hospitals include:
1) transmitted by contact (Contact): Contact the commonest and most important route of transmission of infection
hospital is considered to be divided into three subgroups:
· Direct contact of the body and physical transfer of microorganisms between a susceptible host and a
infection or colonization with bacteria
· Bashy’ susceptible host infected through indirect contact (device, needles, bandages, contaminated gloves)
· Drop (Droplet) produced by a person during sneezing, coughing and talking during suction
or bronchoscopy and exposure of the conjunctiva, nasal mucosa Yadhan < / span>
2) transport by air (Airborne)
3) transmitted by an infected joint, such as food, water, medicines and equipment contaminated
4) transmitted by vectors such as mosquitoes, flies, and mice that have little importance in the transmission of nosocomial infections
borne pathogens in hospital under way
· Contact with patients or equipment: staphylococcus bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae family,
viral infections such as rotavirus, and the fungus Candida.
drop: adenovirus, influenza virus.
needle Hepatitis HIV, B
· Air: Mycobacterium tuberculosis
· Shared by:
intravenous fluids, disinfectants, water: Acinetobacter, Serratia.
Endoscopy: Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter spp.
food: Salmonella Psvdvmvnavaml predisposing patients to nosocomial infections include < / strong>
· Age (infants, elderly)
· Underlying diseases such as organ failure (liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,
renal disease), cancer, neutropenia
· Congenital or acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS, treatment with immune suppressive drugs, malnutrition).
· Vulnerability to viral infections
· Mucocutaneous barrier dysfunction following trauma, burns, surgery, endoscopy, catheters affluent,
skin and mucosal diseases
· Anesthesia induced sedation (Sedation), which leads to suppression of cough or decrease pulmonary ventilation.
· The use of drugs, antibiotics, antacids (the resident flora in the body and reducing resistance to replacement
hospital flora, selected bacteria and fungi and antibiotic-resistant mutants and potential types < / span>
· Colonization flora and thus the incidence of opportunistic fungal and bacterial carrier state.
· Silencing and reactivation of latent infection and immune suppression that followed.
microorganisms responsible for nosocomial infections
different organisms can cause nosocomial infection in endemic and
the terms as are Epidemic disease, previous use of possibility lies on each of Jamie and Annette The
is an antibiotic.
one of the best sources of information on nosocomial bacterial model system
National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance system (NNISS system) is. In a study from 1990 to 1994
AD by the series took place, it was found that in 87% of cases of aerobic bacteria, In
3% of cases of anaerobic bacteria, fungi, 9% and 1% other viruses and parasites in
nosocomial infections have been involved. In general, the types of nosocomial infections,
Escherichia coli (E. Coli) is the most common pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus after the second has had., in Figure 1, the most common type of nosocomial infection by pathogenic microbes shown
said. As we have shown in this diagram, E. Coli causes infections
urinary Tafylvkvk S. aureus Aytryn AS S I M L Zkh surgery infections, P. aeruginosa ; aeruginosa and
S. aureus is the most common bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract and gram cocci < / strong>
most positive microorganisms have been the primary Ayjadbaktrymy. < / span>
Figure 2 pathogens causing epidemic Center for Disease Control and Prevention 1980 < / span>
in making the most common bacterial pathogens causing nosocomial infections
have. The study on the incidence of nosocomial outbreaks in 1980 to 1990
occurred in 62% of cases, the bacteria swim epidemics have been recognized (5). Figure 2 pathogens
in making these shows. The review of the 555 articles in the Medline
nosocomial epidemics from 1984 to 1995 has shown that 71%
of bacteria in 21% of cases, viruses, fungi, 5%, and 3 % of parasites causing all
were measured in 2% of cases of nosocomial infection, has not been identified. Among bacteria, Tqrybadr half of gram negative bacteria causing the infection, and among them, Acinetobacter, Serratia,
Pseudomonas, and Salmonella are common among gram-positive bacteria, the most common organism Staphylococcus
aureus (60%), respectively. < / div>
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